Caffeine keeps us awake; the real science behind it?

Every year, around 100,000 metric tons of caffeine are consumed worldwide. This is the equal of 14 Eiffel Towers in weight. Caffeine is mostly found in coffee and tea, but it can also be found in sodas, chocolates, caffeine pills, and even decaf beverages. Even if we haven't gotten enough sleep, caffeine makes us feel alert, focused, cheerful, and active. But it can also make us feel worried and spike our blood pressure. It is the most extensively used drug in the planet. So how does it keep us awake? Caffeine evolved in plants and performs a variety of functions. It is harmful to insects in high concentrations, as it is found in the leaves and seeds of some species. However, at little doses, such as those present in nectar, it can actually help them remember and revisit flowers. Caffeine functions as a stimulant for the central nervous system in humans.  It keeps us awake by blocking one of the body's key sleep-inducing molecules, a substance called adenosine. Your body requir

Sinkholes; how do sinkholes form?

Imagine the ground beneath your feet or your house suddenly collapsing and forming a large hole in the ground. It's a terrifying thought. Sinkholes are uncommon, but when they do develop, they can be fatal. Sinkholes form when the ground underneath the land surface is unable to support it. Sinkholes can occur for a variety of causes; continue reading to learn more about them. Sinkholes are widespread in areas where the geology beneath the land surface contains limestone, carbonate rock, salt beds, or rocks that can be dissolved naturally by groundwater passing through them. Underground caves and caverns form as the rock degrades. Sinkholes are spectacular because the land normally remains intact for a long time until the subsurface areas get too large. A abrupt collapse of the ground surface can occur if there is insufficient support for the land above the voids. Formation of sinkhole; Image credits - What is a "sinkhole"? When it rains, water stays inside t

Why do birds crash into glass windows?

Daytime and nighttime crashes are the two most common types of window collisions. Birds smash into windows in the daylight because they perceive greenery reflected in the glass or look through the glass to potted plants or vegetation on the other side. Nocturnal migrants (which include most songbirds) smash into illuminated windows at night. Lights, for unknown reasons, divert nocturnal migrants from their intended course, especially in low-ceiling or foggy environments. They mill about in the lit space, occasionally bumping with one another or the lighted structure. As a result of being thrown off course by urban illumination, migrants may roost safely nearby, only to be exposed to daytime reflections in windows the next day. More information on this subject can be found in the Bird Cast initiative and the Fatal Light Awareness Program. Birds crashes into glass windows, Image credits; Sweet Bela Vita Another reason is that birds will sometimes attack their reflection in a glass. This

Airbags; how do they work?

Even if the driver secured properly, an accident would occur at high speeds if there was no airbag. It is a significant engineering challenge to bring the human body to a stop from a high speed in less than 100 milliseconds without causing significant bodily harm. Let's have a better grasp of this life-saving technology by looking at the mechanism of airbag inflation, which is triggered by chemical explosions. Seatbelts are meant to keep the human body from moving, but they can cause internal organ injury if they apply too much stress on the chest area during an accident. Modern seat belts use a torsion bar to slightly release the seat belt in the event of a large impact on the chest. This action causes the upper body to move forward somewhat, but as the torsion bar is released, the upper body's movement is stopped. Working Mechanism of Airbags, Image credit; Please notice that the sear belt only arrests the motion of your upper body, omitting your neck and head, w

Why do cats have vertical pupils?

Peering into the eyes of different animals, you’ll see some extraordinarily shaped pupils. why?  Cat with vertical pupil, Image credits: It turns out that the shape of an animal's pupils is a good indicator of its ecological role. The hollow aperture in the iris, the eye's band of pigmented muscle, is marked by pupils. They're the openings via which light enters the eye, strikes the retina, and activates light-sensitive cells, triggering the visual process. Because most of the light that enters them is absorbed, pupils are black. Their size changes in reaction to light, medications, and emotional and mental states, although their basic shape differs widely between species. House cats, for example, have vertically enlarged pupils and are nocturnal predators. These formations expand dramatically in the dark, absorbing all available light. They shrink into slits when the light is bright. Cat pupils are so adaptable that their maximum area is 135 times larger than t

How do painkillers relieve the pain?๐Ÿ˜จ๐Ÿ˜จ

For instance, you're at the playground and you get sand in your eyes. How do you know the sand is there? You obviously can't see it, but if you are a normal healthy human, you can feel that the sensation of extreme discomfort, also known as pain. Now, pain makes you do something, in this case, rinse your eyes until the sand is gone. How do you know the sand is gone? Exactly, because there's no more pain. There are persons who are unaffected by pain. That may appear to be cool, but it isn't. If you can't feel pain, you may unintentionally injure yourself or others. Your body's early warning system is pain. It shields you from the outside world as well as from yourself. Pain detectors are installed in most places of our bodies as we grow. These detectors are nociceptors, which are specialized nerve cells that run from your spinal cord to your skin, muscles, joints, teeth, and some internal organs. Working mechanism of pain relievers, Image credits:

What is MSG, is it actually bad for you?

Monosodium glutamate MSG is a flavor enhancer that is commonly used in restaurant dishes, canned vegetables, soups, deli meats, and other foods. MSG has been designated as a generally recognized as safe food additive by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, its application is still up for discussion. As a result, the FDA requires MSG to be stated on the label when it is added to food. For many years, MSG has been utilized as a food ingredient. During this time, the FDA has received numerous reports of alarming reactions that have been linked to MSG-containing foods. The MSG symptom complex includes the following reactions: Headache Flushing Sweating Face pressure or tightness Lack of feeling (numbness), tingling or burning in the face, neck and other areas Quick, fluttering heartbeats Chest pain Feeling sick (nausea) Weakness However, no conclusive evidence of a relationship between MSG and these symptoms has been discovered by experts. However, researchers acknowledge th